The application of highly charged ions concerns a range of disciplines, reaching from physics, over industrial applications up to modern medicine. Some of the operation fields of HCI's are illustrated in the subsequent websites.
Each single hit of a slow highly charged ion creates a surface structure on nanoscale dimension. The feature size is dependent on the charge of the ion and therefore on the potential energy deposited into the surface, but as well as on the kinetic energy of the incident ion. The high emission yield of secondary particles can be a basis for improvements and new techniques for surface modification and analysis (for example HCI-TOF-SIMS).
HOPG 20 nm x 20 nm
Xe20+ at 4 keV (produced with a Dresden EBIT)
(by courtesy of Dr. Facsko, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf)
MICA 250 nm x 250 nm
Ar16+ at 8 keV (produced with a Dresden EBIT)
(by courtesy of Prof. Schleberger, University Duisburg-Essen)